Southern Sky Watch

October Skies

Southern Skywatch has been online for 16 years; yes, the competition will happen, eventually.

Useful info for visitors from New Zealand, South Africa and South America.

October 6, Moon at Perigee. October 8, Total Lunar Eclipse. October 18; Moon at Apogee; Jupiter close to crescent Moon. October 19, Mars and comet C/2013 A1 close. October 25; crescent Moon close to Saturn. October 27-28, Mars and the Lagoon Nebula close. October 28, Mars and crescent moon close. October 31, "Blue" First Quarter Moon. Comet C/2013 V5 may be visible in binoculars in the evening.

Looking up at the stars is still a rewarding pursuit, despite the increasing light pollution in our major cities. The southern sky is full of interesting objects, many of which go unseen in the northern hemisphere. All you need for a good nights viewing is yourself, a good idea of where south and east are, and your hands. Optional extras are a small pair of binoculars, a torch with red cellophane taped over the business end and a note book. A great many tips for backyard astronomy may be found here, although many of them are more relevant to the northern hemisphere. A general article on amateur astronomy from New Scientist is here (May require subscription otherwise see the TASS site.).

This page is designed to give people a simple guide to the naked eye sky. In the descriptions of planet and star positions, distances in the sky are given as "fingers width" and "hand span". This is the width of your hand (with all the fingers together as in making a "stop" sign, not bunched as a fist) or finger when extended a full arms length from you.

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Spring is here! Spring brings the wattle flowers and a new round of interesting objects into view in the heavens. Scorpio and Sagittarius slowly leave our night skies to be replaced by Orion and its nebulae, and bright Sirius. The Southern Cross grazes the southern horizon before rising again in summer. It still gets very cold at night, so don't forget to rug up before doing any extended star watching. A blanket or rug to sit on is a good idea, as well as a thermos of your favorite hot beverage.

While these pages are primarily intended for the use of people observing in Australia, non-Australian Southern Hemisphere observers will find most of the information here applies to them. The star information will be most helpful, when you correct your location for latitude (see the Stars section for appropriate location information). Most Moon phase, planet, comet and asteroid information will be very similar to what will be seen in New Zealand, South Africa and South America. Countries close to the equator (eg Indonesia) will have somewhat different southern and northern views, but the eastern and western views should be similar enough to get a good idea of what is going on.

Occultations, eclipses and aurora are highly location dependent, and it would be best to get a local almanac for these events. If there is no local almanac available, email me and I might be able to help you. I do try and give general info for occultations and eclipses in the Oceania area of the Southern Hemisphere.

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Aurora Alert UPDATED 26/02/14: There was a very good auroral event on 22 February, seen in NSW, Victoria, SA and WA as well as Tasmania. Last year, a coronal mass ejection from an M class flare hit us square on on March 17 2013. Aurora were detected as far north as the QLD border, with some really nice events in Tasmania, and here are some images from that event. The Sun is now at solar maximum, but has been rather disappointing so far apart from the odd event like the 17 March one and the unexpected 22 February one. We may see more aurora in the near future.

Auroral images and descriptions from past geomagnetic storms are now at the auroral image web page.

We are now at solar maximum in 2014, and we can hope to see an increasing frequency of aurora, although it has been generally disappointing with some exceptions. Tasmania, King Island and Southern Victoria are the most likely places to see aurora. However, on August 24, 2005 there was a massive auroral storm seen as far as northern NSW (and the 22 February one this year was seen as far north as southern NSW). Naturally, the best views of any aurora will be away from the city and bright lights. Aurora occur when charged particles from the solar wind enter Earths outer atmosphere and interact with the oxygen and nitrogen atoms producing eerie displays of coloured lights. During solar maximum, which occurs every 11 years, the number and speed of the particles are higher, allowing them to penetrate the Earth's magnetic field at lower latitudes than normal. Observers in Tasmania are likely to see green glows or sheets of light in the southern sky. Observers in Southern Victoria are more likely to see a red glow in the southern sky, although more spectacular displays are possible.

The Astronomical Society of Tasmania has a webpage devoted to this phenomenon. The Australian IPS radio and space services covers Aurora and related phenomena in very great detail (too much if you don't know much about them) but has a nice education page. Flinders Uni also has real time magnetometer readings, however, this will probably not mean much to most people.

Aurora will generally follow solar flares by about 2 days, and a number of instruments are watching the sun for these outbursts. The solar minimum occurred in 2006 and persisted for some time. While sunspot numbers, and hence flare rates are increasing, sometimes months will go by without an alert, then you have three in a week. The space weather site at gives notice of when solar winds likely to cause aurora will arrive. Alternatively, send an email to with "subscribe aurora alert" as the subject and I will send you an email alert of any likely auroral event (or other interesting sky phenomena). However, even a strong solar flare is no guarantee that you will be able to see aurora, but it does increase the probability. Still more alternatively, there are the facebook pages Aurora Australis Tasmania, Aurora Australis Tasmania NOW! and Aurora Australis all do discussions and alerts.

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Email alerts I try to update this page fairly regularly outside of the monthly postings. However sometimes things happen which I can't get in fast enough, or you forget to mark your calendar. If you would like to be alerted to or reminded of interesting astronomical or sky phenomena, send an email to with "subscribe aurora alert" as the subject. This is the old aurora alert list, but with auroras rare as we climb out solar minimum (except for the occasional humdinger, like the August 2005 auroral event), it is doing double duty. Astroblog will have images when possible of these events soon after.

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Coming events

6 January 2014; Jupiter at opposition

15 January 2014; Moon Near Jupiter

23 January 2014; Moon Near Mars

26 January 2014; Moon Near Saturn

29 January 2014; Moon Near Venus

11 February 2014; Moon Near Jupiter

19 February 2014; Moon Near Mars

22 February 2014; Moon Near Saturn

22 February 2014; Ocultation of Saturn

26 February 2014; Moon Near Venus

28 February 2014; Moon Near Mercury

10 March 2014; Moon close to Jupiter

18 March 2014; Moon close to Mars

20-21 March 2014; Moon close to Saturn

27-28 March 2014; Moon close to Venus

29 March 2014; Moon close to Mercury

7 April 2014; Moon close to Jupiter

9 April 2014; Mars at opposition

14 April 2014; Moon close to Mars

15 April 2014; Total Lunar Eclipse

17 April 2014; Moon close to Saturn

26 April 2014; Moon close to Venus

29 April 2014; Annular eclipse of the Sun

4 May 2014; Moon and Jupiter close together.

7 May 2014; Eta Aquariid meter shower.

11 May 2014; Moon and Mars close together.

11 May 2014; Opposition of Saturn.

14 May 2014; Moon and Saturn close.

14 May 2014; Occultation of Saturn.

26 May 2014; Moon close to Venus

1 June 2014; Crescent Moon and Jupiter close together.

7-8 June 2014; Moon and Mars close together.

10 June 2014; Moon and Saturn close.

25 June 2014; Crescent Moon and Venus close.

26 June 2014; Crescent Moon near Mercury.

29 June 2014; Crescent Moon near Jupiter.

6 July 2014; Moon, Spica and Mars close.

8 July 2014; Moon and Saturn close.

13 July 2014; Mars and star Spica closest.

24 July 2014; Venus and crescent Moon close.

25 July 2014; Mercury and crescent Moon close.

3 August 2014; Mars and waxing Moon close.

4 August 2014; Occultation of Saturn by Moon.

18 August 2014; Venus and Jupiter close.

24 August 2014; Venus and crescent Moon close.

25 August 2014; Mars and Saturn close.

27 August 2014; Mercury and crescent Moon close.

31 August 2014; Saturn and Moon close.

September: Comets C/2012 K1 PanSTARRS and C/2103 V5 Oukaimaden (just) visible to the unaided eye

1 September 2014; Moon close to Mars.

20 September 2014; Mercury and Spica close.

20-21 September 2014; Moon close to Jupiter.

26 September 2014; Crescent Moon close to Mercury and Spica.

28 September 2014; Moon and Saturn close.

29 September 2014; Moon and Mars close.

October: Comets C/2012 K1 PanSTARRS and C/2103 V5 Oukaimaden (just) visible to the unaided eye, comet C/2013 A1 Siding Spring comes close to Mars

8 October 2014; Total Eclipse of the Moon.

18 October 2014; Moon close to Jupiter.

22 October 2014; Orionid meteor shower.

28 October 2014; Mars close to crescent Moon.

15 November 2014; Moon close to Jupiter.

26 November 2014; Moon close to Mars.

17 November 2014; Leonid Meteor Shower.

11-12 December 2014; Moon close to Jupiter.

15 December 2014; Geminid Meteor shower.

20 December 2014; Crescent Moon close to Saturn.

23 December 2014; Crescent Moon close to Venus and Mercury.

Out in Space

Cassini watches mysterious features in Titan's seas.

Mars Curiosity Rover reaches Mount Sharp.

Mars Express watches winter in Argyre.

The Mars Reconaissance Orbiter sees a rolling bolder.

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The Moon:

Current Phase of the Moon.
This is a JavaScript applet kindly supplied by Darren Osbourne. It shows the Moon as Southern Hemisphere viewers see it, and is upside down from the Northern Hemisphere perspective.

C| First quarter on the 2nd

O Full moon on the 8th
D Last quarter on the 16th
O New Moon is on the 24th
C| First quarter on the 31st

October 6, Moon at Perigee. October 8, Total Lunar Eclipse. October 18; Moon at Apogee; Jupiter close to crescent Moon. October 25; crescent Moon close to Saturn. October 28, Mars and crescent moon close. October 31, "Blue" First Quarter Moon.

An interactive calendar of the Moon's phases.

A view of the phase of the Moon for any date from 1800 A.D. to 2199, US based, so that the Moon is upside down with respect to us. The image above is from this source.

The phases of the Moon have been linked in the popular imagination to activities as diverse as madness and menstruation. However, careful study has shown that there are no such links. This web page outlines how the Moon is unconnected with a wide range of human activities.

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Finding planets, even with the directions below, can sometimes be difficult if you are unfamiliar with the sky. However, the Moon is very obvious, and can be a guide to location of planets. Not only that, the combination of the Moon and bright planet(s) is often very beautiful. Thus the guide below gives the dates when the planets and the Moon are close together.
morning sky, 5:00 am

The morning sky facing east in Melbourne on October 18 at 5:00 am AEST showing the the eastern horizon with Moon near Jupiter. (similar views will be seen from other cities at the equivalent local time eg 5:00 am ACST Adelaide.

evening sky, 10:00 pm

The evening sky facing north-west in Melbourne on October 28 at 10:00 pm AEDST showing the Moon and Mars close together. (similar views will be seen from other cities at the equivalent local time eg 10:00 pm ACDST Adelaide).

Mercury is still very good in the evening sky at the begining of this month. On the 1st, Mercury is just over two hand-spans from the western horizon an hour after sunset. It heads rapidly towards the horizon and by the 15th Mercury is lost in the twilight. By the 30th, Mercury has returned to the morning sky, but is just two fingerwidths from the eastern horizon half an hour before sunrise.

Venus is now lost in the twilight. It will reappear in the evening sky in early December.

Mars is still prominent in the early evening sky this month. Red (well, sort of orange) Mars moves from the constellation of Scorpius into Sagittarius. On October 1 Mars is 7 hand-spans above the western horizon an hour and a half after sunset. Mars is only three finger-widths from the bright red star Antares (the name means "rival of Mars") at this time. By October 15th Mars is just over 6 hand-spans above the western horizon an hour and a half after sunset. On the 19th Mras is less than a finger-width from the comet C/2013 A1 Siding Spring. On the 27th and 28th Mars is less than a finger-width from the Lagoon Nebula M8, this will look nice in binoculars. On the 28th Mars is close to crescent Moon. By the 30th, Mars is just over 5 hand-spans above the western horizon an hour and a half after sunset.

Jupiter continues to climb higher in the morning sky this month. Jupiter starts in Cancer then moves into Leo. On October 1 Jupiter is over two hand spans above the eastern horizon an hour before sunrise. On October 15 Jupiter just over three hand-spans above the eastern horizon an hour before sunrise. On October 18 Jupiter is around a hand-span from the waning Moon. On October 30 Jupiter is over four hand-spans above the eastern horizon an hour before sunrise.

This table was created using The Planets 2.02 a free program available from

Times are AEST, subtract 30 minutes for ACST and 3 hours for AWST. Subtract 1 hour for standard time.
GRS = Great Red Spot. S = Shadow Transit, T = Transit

Wed	1	Oct	4:47	Eur: Disappears into Eclipse
Fri	3	Oct	3:53	Eur: Transit Ends
Sat	4	Oct	3:57	Gan: Transit Begins               T
Sat	4	Oct	4:01	GRS: Crosses Central Meridian
Sat	4	Oct	5:31	Io : Disappears into Eclipse      T
Sun	5	Oct	3:55	Io : Transit Begins               ST
Sun	5	Oct	5:10	Io : Shadow Transit Ends          T
Mon	6	Oct	5:40	GRS: Crosses Central Meridian
Fri	10	Oct	3:44	Eur: Transit Begins               ST
Fri	10	Oct	4:23	Eur: Shadow Transit Ends          T
Sat	11	Oct	3:46	Gan: Shadow Transit Begins        S
Sat	11	Oct	4:49	GRS: Crosses Central Meridian
Sun	12	Oct	4:45	Io : Shadow Transit Begins        S
Mon	13	Oct	5:19	Io : Reappears from Occultation
Thu	16	Oct	3:58	GRS: Crosses Central Meridian
Fri	17	Oct	4:06	Eur: Shadow Transit Begins        S
Sat	18	Oct	5:37	GRS: Crosses Central Meridian
Sun	19	Oct	4:23	Eur: Reappears from Occultation
Mon	20	Oct	3:47	Io : Disappears into Eclipse
Tue	21	Oct	3:07	GRS: Crosses Central Meridian
Tue	21	Oct	3:25	Io : Shadow Transit Ends          T
Tue	21	Oct	4:35	Io : Transit Ends
Thu	23	Oct	4:45	GRS: Crosses Central Meridian
Tue	28	Oct	3:00	Io : Shadow Transit Begins        S
Tue	28	Oct	3:54	GRS: Crosses Central Meridian
Tue	28	Oct	4:13	Io : Transit Begins               ST
Tue	28	Oct	5:18	Io : Shadow Transit Ends          T
Wed	29	Oct	3:41	Io : Reappears from Occultation
Wed	29	Oct	5:12	Gan: Reappears from Eclipse

Saturn is still easily seen with the unaided eye in the early evening sky for most of the month. Saturn is difficult to view in telescopes as it is low above the horizon after twilight. Saturn spends the month in Libra. On October 1 Saturn is is a little under 4 hand-spans above the western horizon an hour and a half after sunset. On October 5 the dwarf planet Ceres is half a finger-width from Saturn. On October 15 Saturn is nearly two hand-spans above the western horizon an hour and a half after sunset. On October 25 the crescent Moon is close to Saturn. By October 30 Saturn is a little under 3 finger-widths above the western horizon an hour sunset.

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Iridium Flares, the International Space Station and other satellites

See this amazing site for images of the space station taken through a telescope.

Iridium flares add a bit of spectacle to the night sky. The Iridium satellite network was set up to give global phone coverage, so an Iridium satellite is almost always over head. Occasionally, one of the antenna of the satellites is aligned so that it reflects the sun towards an observer, giving a brilliant flare, often out-shining Venus. However, the visibility of Iridium flares is VERY dependent on observer position, so you need a prediction for your spot within about 30 km. Hence I'm referring you to a web site for predictions rather than doing it myself.

new See an Iridium Flare at your Location. Courtesy of Heavens above. Choose your location from the drop down box

Or type in Your Latitude and Longitude in decimal format eg Darwin is -12.461 130.840 , to find your Lat Long go to this site.
Latitude: Longitude: City Time Zone:

See the International Space Station at your Location. Courtesy of Heavens above. Choose your location from the drop down box

Or type in Your Latitude and Longitude in decimal format eg Darwin is -12.461 130.840 , to find your Lat Long go to this site.
Latitude: Longitude: City Time Zone:
Another site, JPASS, doesn't do Iridium flares, but is very cool and does the International Space Station, and many other satellites. However, although the output is flashy, it's harder to use than heavens above.

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Meteor showers:

Date        	Meteor Shower       ZHR  Illumination 
21/10/2014  Orionids            21    0.1   

The figure ZHR is zenithal hourly rate. This is the number of meteors that a single observer would see per hour if the shower's "point of origin", or radiant, were at the zenith and the sky were dark enough for 6.5-magnitude stars to be visible to the naked eye. Illumination gives an idea of how dark the sky is, the lower the figure, the darker the sky.

morning sky, 3:00 pm

Morning sky facing north-east at 3:00 pm AEDST on 22 October, the Orionid radiant is indicated with a star burst.

The Orionids are a worthwhile shower, best seen between 2-4 am, the radiant being just under Betelgueuse, the bright red star in Orion. This year the thin crescent Moon will not significantly affect rates. The best viewing is the morning of the 22nd, when between 3-5 am under dark skies you should see about a meteor every 4-6 minutes.

Outside of the showers, you can still see sporadic meteors. Rates seen from the Southern Hemisphere are around 4 random meteors being seen per hour during the late morning hours and 1 per hour during the evening. The evening rates will be reduced during the times around the full Moon due to interference by the Moons light.

A good page describing meteor watching is at the Sky Publications site.

The Meteor Section of the Astronomical Society of Victoria has some good information on meteor watching too.

Learn how to take a meteor shower photograph.

A Cool Fact about meteor speeds

A good page on detecting meteors using home made radio-telescopes is here.

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evening sky, 10.00 pm

Comet C/2013 A1 Siding Spring near Ptolemy's Cluster on October 9 at 10:00 pm local time.

There are currently no comets observable with the unaided eye. However, C/2012 K1 may be visible in binoculars and C/2013 V5 and C/2013 A1 Siding Spring are visible in small telescopes.

C/2012 K1 LINEAR is brightening in the morning sky. Binoculars or small telescopes should show it as a small fuzzy patch with the hint of a tail. A B&W spotters map is available here and a binocular map is here , the large rectangle is the approximate field of view of 10x50 binoculars.

C/2013 V5(Oukaimeden)is low in the evening skies. Reported to be around magnitude 7.6, it will fade as it move away from the sun. Binoculars or small telescopes should show it as a small fuzzy patch. A B&W spotters map is available here and a binocular map is here , the large rectangle is the approximate field of view of 10x50 binoculars.

C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) is heading for a rendezvous with Mars on October 19. Unfortunately it will be around magnitude 9. Not really evident in binoculars but reachable in a small telescope. During the month it passes close to some very nice deep sky objects and is less than a finger-width from Mars on the evening of the 19th. A B&W spotters map suitable for binoculars is available here .

A list of current comet ephemerides is at the MPC.

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No interesting naked-eye occultations this month.



Total Lunar Eclipse October 8, 2014:

Lunar Eclipse, 8:30 pm

Eastern horizon as seen from Adelaide at 8:30 pm ACDST on October 8. The Moon is at maximum depth of total eclipse.

On the evening of 8 October there there be a total eclipse of the Moon. The 8 October eclipse occurs shortly after Moonrise in the eastern and central states, in Western Australia the Moon rises with the eclipse underway and totality occurs during nautical twilight. This is the best Lunar eclipse until 2018. For WA, although most of it occurs in the twilight, it will still be interesting to watch. The eclipsed Moon at twilight has an entirely different look to a normal rising Moon with the pearly light replaced with a pale coppery-red glow.

For the East Coast Moon Rise is around 6:36 pm (see twilight/sunset calculator below),the eclipse begins at 7:15 pm AEST, maximum eclipse is at 8:55 pm, total eclipse ends at 9:25 pm and the eclipse finishes at 10:35 pm

For the Central states Moon Rise is around 6:15 pm (see twilight/sunset calculator below), the eclipse begins at 6:45 pm ACST, maximum eclipse is at 8:25 pm, total eclipse ends at 8:55 pm and the eclipse finishes at 10:05 pm

For Western Australia Moon Rise is around 6:19 pm (see twilight/sunset calculator below), the eclipse begins at 5:15 pm AWST, so the Moon rises partly eclipsed, sunset is around 6:25 pm occurring with the maximum eclipse at 6:25 pm, nautical twilight ends 7:19 pm total eclipse ends at 7:25 pm, astronomical twilight ends 7:49 pm and the eclipse finishes at 8:35 pm

See here for a map and contact timings in UT for sites outside Australia

Find local sunrise/sunset and twilight times for your city or location (courtesy of Heavens Above).
Use either the drop down box for the listed cities, or type in your latitude, longitude and city in the boxes below.

Type in Your Latitude and Longitude in decimal format eg -12.461 130.840 , to find your Lat Long go to this site.

Latitude: Longitude: City Time Zone:


Variable Stars:

While most stars seem to shine with a constant brightness, there are some that undergo regular, dramatic change in brightness. The classic variables Mira and Algol are currently unobservable.

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evening sky, 10:00 pm

The southern evening sky at 10:00 pm AEDST in Melbourne on October 1 (similar views will be seen from other cities at the equivalent local time eg 10:00 pm ACDST Adelaide).

All descriptions here are based on the view from Melbourne at 10.00 pm AEDST (Australian Eastern Standard Time) on 1 October and assumes a fairly level horizon. Starset occurs progressively earlier each day, so these descriptions are valid for 9.00 pm on the 15th and 8.00pm on the 30th. Readers from other time zones should see roughly the same views at 10.00 pm local time. Corrections for cities other than Melbourne are given below.

How do I find east, west, north and south?

Facing east, the faint constellation of Erandius, the river, straddles the the horizon and meanders upwards and southwards to where brightest star, Achernar, points to the small Magellanic cloud.

To the left is Cetus, the whale. Beta Ceti is a modestly bright star six hand-spans above the horizon, the rest of Cetus is relatively faint. Mira, Omicron Ceti (O on the maps) is a variable star with a period of about 332 days.

Cetus also hosts a nearby sun like star. Tau Ceti is 11.4 light years away from earth, looking 10 handspans up from east and two to the left is magnitude 2 Deneb Kaitos, beta Ceti. Two handspans below and slightly to the left is eta Ceti, two hand-spans to the right of eta Ceti, forming a triangle with eta and beta, is Tau Ceti.

Five hand-spans to the left of Cetus is Pisces, a rather nondescript constellation.

Continuing on to the zenith we find bright Fomalhaut, alpha star of Piscis Austrinus. Next to Fomalhaut is Grus, the crane, with a distinctive, battered cross-like shape.

Looking westward from the zenith, about four hand-spans down and three to the right is the battered triangle of Capricornius, the Water Goat. Of interest as well is alpha Capricorni, the brightish star at top left hand corner of the triangle that is Capricorn. This is a naked eye double star.

About mid-sky, directly west is the distinctive "teapot" shape of Sagittarius, the archer. The "teapot" is upside down, the "spout" is pointing south-west, its "handle" north-east, and its "lid" points down to the right (north-eastern horizon). This constellations panoply of clusters and nebula are still easily seen.

M24, an open cluster about two finger-widths to the right and slightly down from the "lid" of the teapot should be visible to the naked eye, just above this and slightly to the left by about a hand span is a number of open clusters and a patch of luminosity that marks the lagoon nebula. M22, a globular cluster, is close to the lid (between and about a finger-widths left of the two stars that make the bottom of the lid), should be visible as a dim, fuzzy star on a dark night. Between these clusters and the "lid" itself runs the Great Sagittarius Starcloud. The center of our galaxy lies in Sagittarius, and on a dark night, the traceries of the Milky Way and its dust clouds are particularly beautiful. A high definition map of Sagittarius can be found here.

Continuing on west, the rambling constellation of Ophiuchus occupies the space between Sagittarius and the western horizon.

Directly to the left of Ophiuchus the distinctive "hook" shape of Scorpio, the scorpion, stretches down towards the western horizon. Going up from the south-western horizon by about one and a half handspans you will see six bright stars forming a T, with the tail of the "T" nearly perpendicular to the horizon and a curved "tail" of stars. The bright red giant star Antares (Alpha Scorpius, the middle star in the three stars forming the tail of the T) is quite prominent. The area around Scorpio is quite rewarding in binoculars, and there is a small but pretty globular cluster about one fingerwidth above and to the north of Antares (between Antares and the leading star of the tail of the T). It can be hard to see in city conditions, and will be especially difficult to see this close to the horizon. A high definition map of Scorpio is here. Just before the point where the tail curves around is a series of star clusters that make up the so-called false comet. The illusion of a comet is quite strong in small binoculars as well, but in stronger binoculars the clusters are quite clear.

Returning to the Zenith and working towards the northern horizon. 6 hand-spans down from the zenith is the faint but rambling constellation of Aquarius.

12 hand-spans down from the Zenith (and six above the northern horizon) is the start of the constellation Pegasus, the winged horse. The distinctive box shape of the main constellation lies around three hand-spans to the right of due north.

At the same level as Pegasus, but seven hand-spans to the left is the three bright stars that mark Aquila, the Eagle, with the brightest, white Altair, being in the center.

Continuing down towards the northern horizon, the next bright star is just a hand-span above the horizon, and three hand-spans to the left of due north. This is Deneb, alpha star of Cygnus, the swan. The rest of the constellation forms a wide but distinctive inverted cross above Deneb with the long axis pointing west, almost parallel to the horizon.

Now return to the zenith and go South. Directly south below Grus brings you to the edge of the dim constellation of Tucana, the Toucan. About four handspans below the zenith, directly on due north, is Alpha Tucana. Just below Tucana and about a hand-span and a half to the left is the Small Magellanic cloud, the second largest of the dwarf satellite galaxies to the Milky Way. This feature is best viewed on a dark night, away from the city. In this nebulosity is what looks to be a fuzzy star, this is 47 Tucana (marked 104 on the map), a spectacular globular cluster that is very nice through binoculars.

To the right of alpha Tucana by around three hand-spans is Peacock, alpha Pavonis, is a reasonably bright magnitude 2 star that heads the large, but dim, constellation of Pavo the Peacock. Delta Pavonis, about two hand-spans below and one to the left of alpha Pavonis, is one of the handful of sun-like stars within 20 light years of Earth that might have terrestrial planets in its habitable zone.

To the right of and some what below Delta Pavonis by about 4 handspans is the boxy shape of Ara, the Altar.

To the left of alpha Tucana by 5 hand-spans is Ankaa, alpha Phoenicis, of the constellation of the Phoenix, another relatively nondescript constellation.

To the left of alpha Tucana by 5 hand-spans and down by about one is bright Achernar, alpha Erandius.

Continuing directly down from alpha Tucana by four handspans is Octans, the octant (a navigating instrument the was the forerunner of the sextant). Octans houses the south celestial pole, and the faint Sigma Octanis, the South Polar star, which is the southern equivalent of Polaris. At magnitude 5.5 you will be stretched to see it under city conditions, but it is six handspans directly below alpha Tucana, forming the apex of an inverted triangle with two other faint stars (tau and chi Octanis).

Directly below Octans by around three handspans is the faint Chameleon, a narrow "kite" of four stars with the long axis parallel to the horizon. To the left of Chameleon by a little over 3 handspans is the extended nebulosity of the Large Magellanic cloud, the largest of the dwarf satellite galaxies. Binoculars will reveal a rather attractive nebula near it, the Tarantula nebula.

To the right of Chameleon by around five handspans are the bright, distinctive alpha and beta Centauri, the so called "pointers", 4 handspans from the south-west horizon, with alpha being the yellow star which is furthest from the horizon, and beta the blue white star below. Between these stars and Chameleon lies the faint constellation Musca the fly. Between the pointers and Pavo lie the dim triangular constellations of Triangulum and Circinus (the compass). Most of the rest of Centarus, the Centaur, is too close to, or below, the Horizon to be seen properly.

Alpha Centauri is the closest star to our sun at around 4 light years. However, recent measurements with the Hippacaros satellite put the system 300 million kilometers further away than previously thought. Alpha centauri is actually a triple star, consisting of two sun-like stars and a red dwarf, Proxima centauri, which is the closest of the triple stars to earth.

Returning to alpha Centauri, following a line south through the "pointers" brings you to the Southern Cross, two handspans below and to the left the pointers (one and a half hand-spans from beta Centauri to beta Crucis) and two hand-spans above the horizon at about the 5 o'clock position on a clock. A high definition map of Centaurus and Crux is here.

The Southern Cross is, as expected, a cross shaped formation with Acrux (alpha Crucis) and gamma Crucis forming the long axis of the cross (pointing down to the south-west, with bright Acrux on the end of the axis away from the horizon). Beta and delta Crucis, now nearly horizontal, form the cross piece of the cross. Just to the right Acrux is the coal sack. This dark area against the glow of the milky way represents a large dust cloud and is usually clearly visible in dark skies, but will be hard to see this close to the horizon. The Jewel box in the Cross is a small open cluster just above Beta Crucis. It is quite beautiful, but requires strong binoculars or a small telescope to see properly.

Just on the southern horizon, almost due south is Carina (the keel of the former constellation Argo Navis). Its position makes viewing the many spectacular clusters in this constellation difficult or impossible. However, bright Canopus is now two hand-spans from the south-eastern horizon, almost directly below the large Magellanic cloud, and will continue to rise in the following weeks.

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Sky Maps

How to use the maps

      map viewsky view

Comparison of a section of a skymap showing the Southern Cross (Crux) and pointers, with the appearance of the night sky. The map and sky are for October 1 at 10.00 pm, facing south. Both show approximately 30 degrees (5 handspans) of sky just above the horizon

The maps look a little busy, as they cover all sky from horizon to zenith. The grid lines are navigational helpers; each horizontal or vertical line covers 30 degrees of arc (the gridlines in the illustration show 15 degrees of arc), which is roughly five handspans (where a handspan is the width of your hand, held flat light a "stop" sign at arms length). As you can see from the way the lines bunch up. The map is a little distorted, due to trying to project a spherical surface on a flat surface. The horizon is the lowest curved line on the map (for technical software reasons I can't block things out below the Horizon). Constellations are linked by lines and their names are in italics. Stars are shown as circles of varying size, the bigger the circle the brighter the star. The stars are named with their Bayer letter (eg a - alpha, the brightest star in a constellation, a Crucis is the brightest star in Crux). Variable stars are shown as hollow circles, double stars are marked with a line (eg a, b and g Crucis are all double stars, that look quite beautiful in a small telescope). Clusters and Nebula brighter than magnitude 6.0 are marked as broken circles (eg the Jewel box cluster next to b Crucis above which is best viewed in binoculars or a telescope) and squares respectively. To find Crux for example, locate Crux on the appropriate map (eg see the illustration above). Holding the Map, face either east or west (depending on the map), then use the grid lines to determine how far over and up you should look, then look for the Crux pattern in that part of the Sky.

GIF Maps

A view of the Eastern October sky at 10.00pm AEDST on 1 October can be downloaded here (octsky_e.png 30 Kb) and a view of the western October sky can be downloaded here (octsky_w.png 30 Kb). These are more compact files but don't have a lot of resolution.

PDF Maps

High Resolution PDF files can be obtained for the eastern (110 Kb) and the western (110 Kb) horizon maps.

The Zenith Map (110 Kb) shows you the whole sky. You will need to face the one of the compass points, then hold the map with the appropriate compass point on the map at the bottom of the page.

You will need a PDF viewer such as Adobe Acrobat or GhostView to view and print them. They look slightly worse on-screen than the GIF files, but print much better and come with legends.

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Not available at this time

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Cheers! And good star gazing!


Ian's Astrophotography Gallery

Some of the photographs/images I have taken in recent years of astronomical phenomena that may be of interest.

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Societies: Australian Resources: Australian Planetariums: updated Astronomy for Kids International Resources: Stunning sites: Useful programs:
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Charts, Books and Software for Astronomy

If you would like to have charts available all the time, rather than relying on mine, for between $2-$20 you can pick up a planisphere from a newsagent or bookshop (or for a bit more you can get fancy ones from Australian Geographic, the ABC shop or the other Australian Geographic look alike shop, or the Wilderness Society, or even a binocular/ optical store). The planisphere won't give you position of the planets, so you will need to get the planet rise/set times. These can be found in most serious newspapers (the Age, the Australian, SMH etc. The Australian is probably the best bet for budding amateurs). The combination of planisphere and rise/set times is the best value for beginners though, if you are not too worried about identifying star clusters in your binoculars.

Or, for $19.95 US, you can have the Touring the Universe through Binoculars Atlas which can print observing charts, but has a few annoying quirks. These include having no horizon line, and the planets are shown in the wrong places.

I use a combination of a 1962 star chart, the Australian Astronomy 2013 almanac and SkyMap Pro 11.0 . I highly recommend the Australian Astronomy 2014 almanac. It is more helpful for planetary/comet/asteroidal observations and eclipses than for double stars, clusters galaxies etc, but is an excellent resource for Australian observers and anyone who would like to seriously follow the planets in Australia should have this almanac. It has easy to follow month-by-month summary information, as well as detailed charts, tables and whole sky maps. It is easily navigated. The Almanac is often in big bookstores or optical shops, or email to purchase a copy directly for those outside major population centres. The Australian Astronomy almanac comes out in around November for the following year, and is now approx $28.

Sky and Telescope now also do an Australian version of their magazine.

For detailed chart drawing and timing of events, as well as satellite track predictions I feed the information from the almanac into the $150 AUD SkyMap Pro 11.0 , planetarium program. This is a very handy program which prints maps of every possible orientation and scale. The maps on this page are produced by SkyMap.

A shareware version of SkyMap that runs on windows 3.x, and win95 can be found here this is approximately 640 Kb zipped.

A shareware version of the win95 only version 5.0 is here

Other highly recommended Sky charting packages (win95/98/2000/XP sorry) are:
Cartes du Ciel at (FREE) a bit messy to install but very good.
Stellarium at (FREE) stunning photorealistic program, but requires a grunty PC.
TheSkyVarious packages from $49 US to $249 US
Stary Night various versions from $49 us for the basic pack (10 day trial of the basic pack at up.
Earth Centered Universe $88 AUD (shareware version at
On the other hand a standard Sky Atlas for serious observing (much handier than carting a computer with you) such as Norton's Star Atlas can range from $35 to $90.

In these days of Handheld devices (smart phones and tablets), there is a plethora of sky charting apps you can take into the field with you. I use GoogleSky for android and a cut down version of Stellarium for iPad, my most used handheld app is Heavens Above for Android, for watching Iridium flares and ISS passes. This is one app that has changed my astronomical life. There are many more, many free or less than 1 AUD to dowload. Celestron has a great free planetarium app (although big at 154 Mb) for Android, iPhone and iPad, SkyPortal.

This is not meant to be a product endorsement of any kind (outside of the Australian Astronomy 2014 almanac. For any budding astronomers out there, it is fantastic value and no, I don't have any commercial interest in it, but I did win bronze in their website Olympics).

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Link to the Lab's 'In Space' gateway Link to the Lab's home page
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This page is provided by Ian Musgrave and is © copyright 2014 Ian Musgrave, except the meteor tables which are from the Astronomical Society of New South Wales Inc and the "Southern Sky Watch" logo, as well as any other ABC logo used on this page, is © copyright of the ABC. Sky maps are generated with SkyMap Pro 11.0 .

This page can be used freely for any non-commercial purpose but please attribute it correctly. However, see the disclaimer.

* Email: e-mail Ian with any suggestions
Created: Wednesday, 1 April 1998, 11:22:13 PM
Last Updated: Wednesday, 1 October 2014, 11:30:13 PM

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