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More TCP/IP



Due to the unprecedented request for more knowledge on this topic, please read on and to all you Uni students (or even for people that just want to know what it is) I hope this is what you were looking for...

I can finally say that THIS page is finished, if you would like to proceed to my next 'page' please click here. Otherwise just have a relaxing time reading the info below.

The Internet Protocol (IP)


Before proceeding into a considerable amount of detail about TCP/IP, the Internet, and the Internet Protocol, it is worthwhile to try and complete a quick outline of TCP/IP. Then, as the details are discussed, they can be placed in the broader outline more easily, thereby leading to a better complete understanding.

Just what is TCP/IP? It is a software-based communications protocol used in networking. Although the name TCP/IP implies that the entire scope of the product is a combination of two protocols - Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol - the term TCP/IP is usually not a single entity combining two protocols, but a larger set of software programs that provide network services such as remote logins, remote file transfers, and electronic mail. TCP/IP provides a method for transferring information from one machine to another. A communications protocol should handle errors in transmission, manage the routing and delivery of data, and control the actual transmission by the use of predetermined status signals. TCP/IP accomplishes all of this.

note02.gif - 1.1 K TCP/IP is not a single product. It is a catch-all name for a family of protocols that use similar behaviors. The term TCP/IP usually refers to a protocol within the family, not TCP and IP only.

In my previous page on TCP/IP, you saw that the OSI model is composed of seven layers. You can overlay the TCP/IP programs on this model to give a rough idea of where they all reside. Figure 1shows the basic elements of the TCP/IP system. You will see that TCP/IP is not involved in the bottom two layers of the OSI model (Data Link and Physical), but begins in the Network layer where the Internet Protocol (IP) resides. In the Transport layer, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is involved. Above this, the utilities and protocols that make up the rest of the TCP/IP suite are built using the TCP and IP layers for their communications system. There are two transport systems involved, namely TCP and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Each has its strengths, which you will see later. The routing of messages is performed by the Internet Protocol in the Network layer.

Warning.gif - 0.2 K A note of caution about TCP/IP: Despite the fact that TCP/IP is an open protocol, there are many companies who have modified it for their own networking system. There can be incompatibilities because of these modifications, which, even though they may adhere to the official standards, might have other aspects that cause problems. Luckily, these problems are not rampant, but you should be careful when choosing a TCP/IP product to ensure its compatibility with existing software and hardware.

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Figure 1


TCP/IP is dependent on the concept of clients and servers. This has nothing to do with a file server being accessed by a diskless workstation or PC. The term client/server has a simple meaning in TCP/IP: It refers to any device that initiates communications as the client, and the device that answers as the server. The server is responding (serving) the client's requests.

A Quick Overview of TCP/IP Components

To understand the role that the many components of the TCP/IP protocol family plays, it is useful to know what you can do over a TCP/IP network. Then, once the applications are understood, the protocols are a little easier to comprehend. The following list is not exhaustive but mentions the primary user applications that TCP/IP provides.

Telnet

The Telnet program provides a remote login capability. This lets a user on one machine log onto another machine and act as though he or she were directly in front of the second machine. The connection can be anywhere on the local network or on another network anywhere in the world, as long as the user has permission to log onto the remote system.

File Transfer Protocol

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) enables a file on one system to be copied to another system. The user doesn't actually log in as a full user to the machine he or she wants to access, as with telnet, but instead uses the FTP program to enable access. Again, the correct permissions are necessary to provide access to the files. Once the connection to a remote machine has been established, FTP enables you to copy one or more files to your machine. (The term transfer implies that the file is moved from one system to another, but the original is not affected. Files are copied.)

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used for the transferring of electronic mail. Transparent to the user, SMTP connects to different machines and transfers the mail messages, much like FTP transfers files.

Kerberos

Kerberos is a widely supported security protocol that uses a special device called an authentication server, which validates passwords and encryption schemes. Kerberos is one of the more secure encryption systems used in communications and is quite common in UNIX.

Domain Name Server

The Domain Name Server (DNS) enables a device with a common name to be converted to a special network address. For example, a system called joes_workstation cannot be accessed by a network across the country unless some method of checking the local machine's names is available. The DNS provides a conversion from the common local name to the unique physical address of the device's network connection.

Abstract Syntax Notation

It is a language used in both OSI andTCP/IP to define standards. ASN.1 provides unambiguous definitions for terms used in those standards.

Simple Network Management Protocol

The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) as a transport mechanism. It uses different terms from TCP/IP, working with managers and agents instead of clients and servers. An agent provides information about a device, whereas a manager communicates across a network.

Network File Server

The Network File Server (NFS) is a set of protocols developed by Sun Microsystems to transparently enable multiple machines to access each other's directories. They accomplish this by using a distributed filesystem scheme. NFS systems are common in large corporate environments, which use UNIX workstations.

Remote Procedure Calls

Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs) are functions that enable an application to communicate with another machine (the server). They provide for programming functions, return codes, and predefined variables to support distributed computing.

Trivial File Transfer Protocol

The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is a very simple, unsophisticated file transfer protocol that lacks any security. It uses UDP as a transport.

Transmission Control Protocol

Transmission Control Protocol (the TCP part of TCP/IP) is a communications protocol that provides reliable transfer of data. It is responsible for assembling data passed from higher-layer applications into standard packets and ensuring the data is transferred correctly.

User Datagram Protocol

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless-oriented protocol, meaning it does not provide for the retransmission of datagrams (unlike TCP, which is connection oriented). UDP is not very reliable, but it does have particular purposes. If the applications that use UDP have reliability checking, the shortcomings of UDP can be overcome.

Internet Protocol

The Internet Protocol (IP) is responsible for moving the packets of data assembled by either TCP or UDP across networks. It uses a set of unique addresses for every device on the network to determine routing and destinations.

Internet Control Message Protocol

The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is responsible for checking and generating messages on the status of devices on a network. It can be used to inform other devices of a failure in one particular machine. ICMP and IP usually work together.

TCP/IP History

The architecture of TCP/IP is often called the Internet architecture because TCP/IP and the Internet are so closely interwoven.

The Internet was originally proposed by the precursor of DARPA, called the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), as a method of testing the viability of packetswitching networks. (When ARPA's focus became military in nature, the name change was effected.) During its tenure of the project, ARPA foresaw a network of leased lines connected by switching nodes. The network was called ARPAnet and the switching nodes were called Internet Message Processors or IMPs.

The ARPAnet was initially to be comprised of four IMPs located at the University of California at Los Angeles, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the Stanford Research Institute, and the University of Utah. The original IMPs were to be Honeywell 316 minicomputers.

The contract for the installation of the network was won by Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN), a company which was to have a strong influence on the development of the network in the following years. The contract was awarded in late 1968, followed by testing and refinement over the next five years.

note02.gif - 1.1 K Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN) made many suggestions for the improvement of the Internet and the development of TCP/IP, for which their names are often associated with the protocol.

In 1971, ARPAnet entered into regular service. Machines used the ARPAnet by connecting to an IMP using the "1822" protocol - so called because that was the number of the technical paper describing the system. During the early years, the purpose and utility of the network was widely (and sometimes heatedly) discussed, leading to refinements and modifications as users requested more functionality from the system.

A commonly recognised need was the capability to transfer files from one machine to another, as well as the capability to support remote logins. Remote logins would enable a user in Santa Barbara to connect to a machine in Los Angeles over the network, and function as though he or she were in front of the UCLA machine. The protocol then in use on the network wasn't capable of handling these new functionality requests, so new protocols were continually developed, refined, and tested.

Remote login and remote file transfer were finally implemented in a protocol called the Network Control Program (NCP). Later, electronic mail was added through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and together with NCP's remote logins and file transfer, formed the basic services for ARPAnet.

By 1973, it was clear that NCP was unable to handle the volume of traffic and proposed new functionality. A project was begun in order to develop a new protocol. The birth of the TCP/IP and gateway architectures were first proposed in 1974. The published article by Cerf and Kahn described a system that provided a standardised application protocol that also used end-to-end acknowledgments.

Neither of these concepts were really novel at the time, but more importantly (and with considerable vision), Cerf and Kahn suggested that the new protocol be independent of the underlying network and computer hardware. Also, they proposed universal connectivity throughout the network. These two ideas were radical in a world of proprietary hardware and software because they would enable any kind of platform to participate in the network. The protocol was developed and became known as TCP/IP.

A series of RFCs (Request for Comments, part of the process for adopting new Internet Standards) was issued in 1981, standardising on TCP/IP Version 4 for the ARPAnet. In 1982, TCP/IP supplanted NCP as the dominant protocol of the growing network, which was now connecting machines across the continent. It is estimated that a new computer was connected to ARPAnet every 20 days during its first decade. (That may not seem like much compared to the current estimate of Internet's size doubling every year, but in the early eighties it was a phenomenal growth rate.)

During the development of ARPAnet, it became obvious that non-military researchers could use the network to their advantage, enabling faster communications of ideas, as well as faster physical data transfer. A proposal to the National Science Foundation led to funding for the Computer Science Network in 1981, joining the military with educational and research institutes to refine the network. This led to the splitting of the network into two different networks in 1984. The MILNET was dedicated to unclassified military traffic, whereas the ARPAnet was left for research and other non-military purposes.

ARPAnet's growth and subsequent demise came with the approval for the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing to develop wide access to supercomputers. They created NSFNET to connect six supercomputers spread across the country through T-1 lines (which operated at 1.544 Mbps). The Department of Defense finally declared ARPAnet obsolete in 1990, when it was officially dismantled.

Berkeley UNIX Implementations and TCP/IP

TCP/IP became important when the Department of Defense started including the protocols as military standards, which were required for many contracts. TCP/IP became popular primarily because of the work done at UCB (Berkeley). UCB had been a center of UNIX development for years, but in 1983 they undertook to release a new version that incorporated TCP/IP as an integral element. That version - 4.2BSD (Berkeley System Distribution) - was made available to the world as public domain software.

The popularity of 4.2BSD spurred the popularity of TCP/IP, especially as more sites connected to the growing ARPAnet. Berkeley released an enhanced version (which included the so-called Berkeley Utilities) in 1986 as 4.3BSD. An optimised TCP implementation followed in 1988 (called 4.3BSD/Tahoe). Practically every version of TCP/IP available today has its roots (and much of its code) in the Berkeley versions.

note02.gif - 1.1 K Despite the demise of Berkeley Software Distribution's UNIX version in 1993, the BSD and UCB developments are an integral part of TCP/IP and will continue to be used as part of the protocol family's naming system.

OSI and TCP/IP

The adoption of TCP/IP didn't conflict with the OSI standards because the two developed concurrently. In some ways, TCP/IP contributed to OSI, and vice versa. Several important differences do exist, though, which arise from the basic requirements of TCP/IP:

30.gif - 2.9 K A common set of applications
30.gif - 2.9 K Dynamic routing
30.gif - 2.9 K Connectionless protocols at the networking level
30.gif - 2.9 K Universal connectivity
30.gif - 2.9 K Packet-switching

The differences between the OSI architecture and that of TCP/IP relates to the layers above the transport level, and those at the network level. OSI has both the session layer and the presentation layer, whereas TCP/IP combines both into an application layer. The requirement for a connectionless protocol also required TCP/IP to combine the OSI's physical and link layer into a network level. A schematic view of TCP/IP's layered structure (compared with OSI's seven layer model) is shown in Figure 2. TCP/IP calls the different network level elements subnetworks.

OSI Model TCP/IP (Internet)
Application Application
Presentation Application
Session Application
Transport Transport
Network Internet
Data Link Network Interface Physical
Physical Network Interface Physical

Figure 2

note02.gif - 1.1 K OSI and TCP/IP are not incompatible, but they aren't perfectly compatible, either. They both have a layered architecture, but the OSI architecture is much more rigorously defined and the layers are more independent than TCP/IP's.

Some fuss was made about the network level combination, although it soon became obvious that the argument was academic as most implementations of the OSI model combined the physical and link levels on an intelligent controller (such as a network card). The combination of the two layers into a single layer had one major benefit: It enabled a subnetwork to be designed that was independent of any network protocols, because TCP/IP was oblivious to the details. This enabled proprietary, self-contained networks to implement the TCP/IP protocols for connectivity outside their closed systems.

The layered approach gave rise to the name TCP/IP. The transport layer uses the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or one of several variants such as the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). (There are other protocols in use, but TCP and UDP are the most common.) There is, however, only one protocol for the network level - the Internet Protocol (IP). This is what assures the system of universal connectivity, one of the primary design goals.

There is a considerable amount of pressure from the user community to abandon the OSI model (and any future communications protocol that is developed that conforms to it) in favor of TCP/IP. The argument hinges on some obvious reasons:

30.gif - 2.9 K TCP/IP is up and running, and has a proven record.
30.gif - 2.9 K TCP/IP has an established, functioning management body.
30.gif - 2.9 K There are thousands of applications that currently use TCP/IP and its well documented application programming interfaces.
30.gif - 2.9 K TCP/IP is the basis for most UNIX systems, which are gaining the largest share of the operating system market (other than desktop single-user machines, such as the PC and Macintosh).
30.gif - 2.9 K TCP/IP is vendor-independent.

Arguing rather strenuously against TCP/IP, surprisingly enough, is the U.S. government - the very body that sponsored it in the first place. Its primary argument is that TCP/IP is not an internationally adopted standard, whereas OSI has that recognition. The Department of Defense has even begun to move its systems away from the TCP/IP protocol set. A compromise will probably result, with some aspects of OSI adopted into the still-evolving TCP/IP protocol suite.

TCP/IP and Ethernet

For many people, the terms TCP/IP and Ethernet go together almost automatically, primarily for historical reasons, as well as the simple fact that there are more Ethernet based TCP/IP networks than any other type. Ethernet was originally developed at XEROX's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) as a step towards an electronic office communications system and has since grown in capability and popularity.

Ethernet is a hardware system, providing for the Data Link and Physical layers of the OSI model. As part of the Ethernet standards, issues such as cable type and broadcast speeds are established. There are several different versions of Ethernet, each with a different data transfer rate. The most common is Ethernet Version 2, also called 10-Base-5, Thick Ethernet, and IEEE 802.3 (after the number of the standard that defines the system adopted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers). This system has a 10 megabit-per-second rate.

There are several commonly used variants of Ethernet, such as Thin Ethernet (called 10-Base-2), which can operate over thinner cable (such as the coaxial cable used in television systems) and Twisted-Pair Ethernet (10-Base-T), which uses simple twisted pair wires similar to telephone cable. The latter variant is popular for small companies because it is inexpensive, easy to wire, and has no strict requirements for distance between machines.

note02.gif - 1.1 K It is usually easy to tell which type of Ethernet network is being used by checking the connector to a network card. If it has a telephone-style plug, it is 10-Base-T. The cable for 10-Base-T looks the same as telephone cable. If the network has a D-shaped connector with many pins in it, it is 10-Base-5. A 10-Base-2 network has a connector similar to a TV coaxial connector, except it locks into place. The 10-Base-5 connector is always circular.

The size of a network is also a good indicator. 10-Base-5 is used in large networks with many devices and long transmission runs. 10-Base-2 is used in smaller networks, usually with all the network devices in fairly close proximity. Twisted-pair (10-Base-T) networks are often used for very small networks with a few dozen devices maximum in a close proximity.


Ethernet and TCP/IP work well together, with Ethernet providing the physical cabling (layers one and two) and TCP/IP the communications protocol (layers three and four) that is broadcast over the cable. The two have their own processes for packaging information: TCP/IP uses 32-bit addresses, whereas Ethernet uses a 48-bit scheme. The two work together, however, because of one component of TCP/IP called the Address Resolution Protocol, which converts between the two schemes. (ARP is discussed in more detail in my following web pages).

Ethernet relies on a protocol called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detect (CSMA/CD). To simplify the process, a device checks the network cable to see if anything is currently being sent. If it is clear, the device sends its data. If the cable is busy (carrier detect), the device waits for it to clear. If two devices transmit at the same time (a collision), the devices know - because of their constant comparison - of the cable traffic to the data in the sending buffer. If a collision happens, the devices wait a random amount of time before trying again.

Internet

As ARPAnet grew out of a military-only network to add subnetworks in universities, corporations, and user communities, it became know as the Internet. There is no single network called the Internet, however. The term refers to the collective network of subnetworks. The one things they all have in common is TCP/IP as a communications protocol.

The organisation of the Internet and adoption of new standards is controlled by the Internet Advisory Board (IAB), which among other things, coordinates several task forces including the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Internet Research Task Force (IRTF). In a nutshell, the IRTF is concerned with ongoing research, whereas the IETF handles the implementation and engineering aspects associated with the Internet.

A body that has some bearing on the IAB is the Federal Networking Council (FNC), which serves as an intermediary between the IAB and the government. The FNC has an advisory capacity to the IAB and its task forces, as well as the responsibility for managing the government's use of the Internet and other networks. Because the government was responsible for funding the development of Internet, they retain a considerable amount of control, as well as sponsor some research and expansion of the Internet.

The Structure of the Internet

As mentioned earlier, the Internet is not a single network but a collection of networks that communicate with each other through gateways. A gateway (sometimes called a router) is defined as a system that performs relay functions between networks, as shown in Figure 3. The different networks connected to each other through gateways are often called subnetworks, because they are a smaller part of the larger overall network. Take care not to assume this means that a subnetwork is small or dependent on the larger network. Subnetworks are complete networks, but they are connected through a gateway as a part of the larger internetwork, or in this case the Internet.

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Figure 3


With TCP/IP, all interconnections between physical networks are through gateways. An important point to remember for use later is that gateways route information packets based on their destination network name, not the destination machine. Gateways are supposed to be completely transparent to the user, which also alleviates the gateway from handling user applications (unless the machine that is acting as a gateway is also someone's work machine or a local network server, as is often the case with small networks). Put simply, the gateway's sole task is to receive a Protocol Data Unit (PDU) from either the internetwork or the local network and either route it on to the next gateway or pass it into the local network for routing to the proper user.

Gateways work with any kind of hardware and operating system, as long as they are designed to communicate with the other gateways they are attached to (which in this case means that a gateway uses TCP/IP). Whether the gateway is leading to just a Macintosh network, a set of IBM PCs, or mainframes from a dozen different companies doesn't matter to the gateway or the PDUs it handles.

note02.gif - 1.1 K There are actually several types of gateways, each performing a different type of task. My future web pages looks at the different gateways in more detail.

In the United States, the Internet has the NFSNET as its backbone, as shown in Figure 4. Among the primary networks connected to the NFSNET are NASA's Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN), the San Diego Supercomputer Network (SDSCNET), the Computer Science Network (CSNET), and a host of smaller user-oriented networks such as Because It's Time Network (BITNET) and UUNET, who provide connectivity through gateways for smaller sites that can't or don't want to establish a direct gateway to the Internet.

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Figure 4


The NFSNET backbone is comprised of approximately 3,000 research sites, connected by T-3 leased lines running at 44.736Mbps. Tests are currently underway to increase the operational speed of the backbone to enable more throughput and accommodate the rapidly increasing number of users. Several technologies are being field-tested, including Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ANSI's proposed High-Performance Parallel Interface (HPPI). These new systems can produce speeds approaching 1Gbps.

The Internet Layers

Most internetworks, including the Internet, can be thought of as a layered architecture (yes, even more layers!) to simplify understanding. The layer concept helps in the task of developing applications for internetworks, too. The layering also shows how the different parts of TCP/IP work together. The more logical structure brought about by using a layering process has already been seen in my previous web page for the OSI model, so applying it to the Internet makes sense. Be careful to think of these layers as conceptual only; they are not really physical or software layers as such (unlike the OSI or TCP/IP layers).

It is convenient to think of the Internet as having four layers. This layered Internet Architecture is shown in Figure 5. These layers should not be confused with the architecture of each machine, as described in the OSI seven-layer model, but as a method of seeing how the internetwork, network, TCP/IP, and the individual machines work together. Independent machines reside in the subnetwork layer at the bottom of the architecture, connected together in a local area network (LAN) and referred to as the subnetwork

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Figure 5


On top of the subnetwork layer is the internetwork, which provides the functionality for communications between networks through gateways. Each subnetwork uses gateways to connect to the other subnetworks in the internetwork. It is in the internetwork layer that data gets transferred from gateway to gateway until it reaches its destination and then passes into the subnetwork layer. The internetwork layer runs the Internet Protocol.

The Service Provider Protocol layer is responsible for the overall end-to-end communications of the network. This is the layer that runs the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and other protocols. It handles the data traffic flow itself and ensures reliability for the message transfer.

The top-most layer is the Application Services layer, which supports the interfaces to the user applications. This layer interfaces to electronic mail, remote file transfers, and remote access. There are several protocols used in this layer, many of which are explained later.

To see how the Internet Architecture layer model works, a simple example is useful. Assume an application on one machine wants to transfer a datagram to an application on another machine in a different subnetwork. Without all the signals between layers and simplifying the architecture a little, the process is shown in Figure 6. The layers in the sending and receiving machines are the OSI layers, with the equivalent Internet Architecture layers indicated.

subnetwork.gif - 6.0 K
Figure 6


The data is sent down the layers of the sending machine, assembling the datagram with the Protocol Control Information (PCI) as it goes. From the physical layer, the datagram (which is sometimes called a frame after the data link layer has added its header and trailing information) is sent out to the local area network. The LAN routes the information to the gateway out to the internetwork. During this process, the LAN has no concern about the message contained in the datagram. Some networks, however, do alter the header information to show, among other things, the machines it has passed through.

From the gateway, the frame passes from gateway to gateway along the internetwork until it arrives at the destination subnetwork. At each step, the gateway analyses the datagram's header to determine if it is for the subnetwork the gateway leads to, and if not, routes the datagram back out over the internetwork. This analysis is performed in the Physical layer, eliminating the need to pass the frame up and down through different layers on each gateway. The header may be altered at each gateway to reflect its routing path.

When the datagram is finally received at the destination subnetwork's gateway, the gateway recognises that the datagram is at its correct subnetwork and routes it into the local area network and eventually to the target machine. The routing is accomplished by reading the header information. When the datagram finally reaches the destination machine, it passes up through the layers with each layer stripping off its PCI header, and then passing the result on up. At long last, the application layer on the destination machine processes the final header and passes the message to the correct application.

If the datagram was not data to be processed but a request for a service such as a remote file transfer, the correct layer on the destination machine would decode the request and route the file back over the internetwork to the original machine.

Internetwork Problems

Not everything goes smoothly when transferring data from one subnetwork to another. All manner of problems can occur, despite the fact that the entire network is using one protocol. A typical problem is a limitation on the size of the datagram. The sending network may support datagrams of 1,024 bytes, but the receiving network might only use 512-byte datagrams (because of a different hardware protocol, for example). This is where the processes of segmentation, separation, reassembly, and concatenation become important.

The actual addressing methods used by the different subnetworks can cause conflicts when routing datagrams. Because communicating subnetworks might not have the same network control software, the network-based header information might differ, despite the fact that the communications methods are based on TCP/IP. An associated problem occurs when dealing with the differences between physical and logical machine names. In the same manner, a network that requires encryption instead of clear-text datagrams may affect the decoding of header information. Therefore, differences in the security implemented on the subnetworks can affect datagram traffic. These differences can all be resolved with software, but the problems associated with addressing methods can become considerable.

Another common problem is the different networks' tolerance for timing problems. Time-out and retry values may differ, so when two subnetworks are trying to establish communications, one may have given up and moved on to another task while the second is still waiting patiently for an acknowledgment signal. Also, if two subnetworks are communicating properly and one gets busy and has to pause the communications process for a short while, the amount of time before the other network assumes a disconnection and gives up may be important. Coordinating the timing over the internetwork can become very complicated.

Routing methods and the speed of the machines on the network may affect the internetwork's performance, too. If a gateway is managed by a particularly slow machine, the traffic coming through the gateway may back up, causing delays and incomplete transmissions for the entire internetwork. Developing an internetwork system that can dynamically adapt to loads and reroute datagrams when a bottleneck occurs is very important.

There are other factors to consider, such as network management and troubleshooting information, but you should begin to see that simply connecting networks together without due thought will not work. The many different network operating systems and hardware platforms require a logical, well-developed approach to the internetwork. This is outside the scope of TCP/IP, which is simply concerned with the transmission of the datagrams. The TCP/IP implementations on each platform, however, must be able to handle the problems mentioned.

Internet Addresses

Network addresses are analogous to mailing addresses, in that they tell a system where to deliver a datagram. Three terms commonly used in the Internet relate to addressing: name, address, and route.

note02.gif - 1.1 K The term address is often generically used with communications protocols to refer to many different things. It can mean a destination, a port of a machine, a memory location, an application, and more. Take care when you encounter the term to make sure you know what it is really referring to.

A name is a specific identification of a machine, a user, or an application. It is usually unique and provides an absolute target for the datagram. An address typically identifies where the target is located, usually as its physical or logical location in a network. A route tells the system how to get a datagram to the address.

You'll use the recipient's name often, either specifying a user name or a machine name, and an application will do the same thing transparently to you. From the name, a network software package called the name server will try to resolve the address and the route, making that aspect unimportant to you. When you send electronic mail, you simply indicate the recipient's name, relying on the name server to figure out how to get the mail message to them.

Using a name server has one other primary advantage besides making the addressing and routing unimportant to the end user: It gives the system or network administrator a lot of freedom to change the network as required, without having to tell each user's machine about any changes. As long as an application can access the name server, any routing changes can be ignored by the application and users.

Naming conventions differ depending on the platform, the network, and the software release, but here is a typical Ethernet-based Internet subnetwork as an example. There are several types of addressing you need to look at, including the local area network system, as well as the wider internetwork addressing conventions.

Subnetwork addressing

On a single network, there are several pieces of information necessary to ensure the correct delivery of data. The primary components are the physical address and the data link address.

Physical Addresses

Each device on a network that will communicate with others has a unique physical address, sometimes called the hardware address. On any given network, there will be only one occurrence of each address; otherwise the name server will have no way of identifying the target device unambiguously. For hardware, the addresses are usually encoded into a network interface card, set either by switches or by software. With respect to the OSI model, the address is located in the physical layer.

In the physical layer, the analysis of each incoming datagram (more accurately a protocol data unit or PDU) is performed. If the recipient's address matches the physical address of the device, the datagram can be passed up the layers. If the addresses don't match, the datagram is ignored. Keeping this analysis in the bottom-most layer of the OSI model prevents unnecessary delays, because otherwise the datagram would have to be passed up to other layers for analysis.

The length of the physical address varies depending on the networking system, but Ethernet and several others use 48 bits in each address. For communications to occur, two address are required: one each for the sending and receiving devices.

The IEEE is now handling the task of assigning universal physical addresses for subnetworks (a task previously performed by Xerox, as it developed Ethernet). For each subnetwork, the IEEE assigns an organisation unique identifier (OUI) that is 24-bits long, enabling the organisation to assign the other 24 bits however it wants. (Actually, two of the 24 bits assigned as an OUI are control bits, so only 22 bits identify the subnetwork. Because this provides 2 to the exponent 22 combinations, it is possible to run out of OUIs in the future if the current rate of growth is sustained.)

The format of the organisation unique identifier is shown in Figure 7. The least significant bit of the address (lowest bit number) is the individual or group address bit. If the bit is set to 0, the address refers to an individual address; a setting of 1 means that the rest of the address field identifies a group address that needs further resolution. If the entire OUI is set to 1s, the address has a special meaning. All stations on the network are assumed to be the destination.

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Figure 7


The second bit is the local or universal bit. If set to 0, it has been set by the universal administration body. This is the setting for IEEE assigned OUIs. If the second bit has a value of 1, the OUI has been locally assigned and would cause addressing problems if decoded as an IEEE-assigned address.

The remaining 22 bits make up the physical address of the suhnetwork, as assigned by the IEEE. The second set of 24 bits identify local network addresses and are administered locally. If an organisation were to run out of physical addresses (there are about 16 million addresses possible from 24 bits), the IEEE has the capacity to assign a second subnetwork address.

The combination of 24 bits from the OUI and 24 locally assigned bits is called a media access control (MAC) address. When a packet of data is assembled for transfer across an internetwork, there will be two sets of MACs, one from the sending machine and one for the receiving machine.

Data Link Address

The IEEE Ethernet standards (and several other allied standards) use another address called the link layer address (abbreviated as LSAP for link service access point). The LSAP identifies the type of link protocol used in the data link layer. As with the physical addresses, a datagram will carry both sending and receiving LSAPs. The IEEE also enables a code that identifies the EtherType assignments, which identifies the upper layer protocol (ULP) running on the network (almost always a LAN).

Ethernet Frames

The layout of information in each transmitted packet of data differs depending on the protocol, but it is instructive to examine one to see how the addresses and related information are prepended to the data. This section uses the Ethernet system as an example because of its wide use with TCP/IP. It is quite similar to other systems, as well.

A typical Ethernet frame (remember that a frame is the term for a network-ready datagram) is shown in Figure 8. The preamble is a set of bits that are used primarily to synchronise the communication process and account for any random noise in the first few bits that are sent. At the end of the preamble is a sequence of bits that are the start frame delimiter (SFD), which indicate that the frame follows immediately.

subnetwork3.gif - 1.9 K
Figure 8


The recipient and sender addresses follow in IEEE 48-bit format, followed by a 1 6-bit type indicator that is used to identify the protocol. The data follows the type indicator. The Data field is between 46 and 1,500 bytes in length. If the data is actually less than 46 bytes, it is padded with 0s until it is 46 bytes long. Any padding is not counted in the calculations of the data field's total length, which is used in one part of the IP header.

At the end of the frame is the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) count, which is used to ensure that the frame's contents have not been modified during the transmission process.

Each gateway along the transmission route calculates a CRC value for the frame and compares it to the value at the end of the frame. If the two match, the frame can be sent farther along the network or into the subnetwork; but if they differ, a modification to the frame must have happened and the frame is discarded (to be later retransmitted by the sending machine when a timer expires).

In some protocols, such as the IEEE 802.3, the overall layout of the frame is the same, but slight variations in the contents are used. With 802.3, the 16 bits used by Ethernet to identify the protocol type are replaced with a 16-bit value for the length of the data block. Also, the data area itself is prepended by a new field.

IP Addresses

TCP/IP uses a 32-bit address to identify a machine on a network and the network to which it is attached. IP addresses identify a machine's connection to the network, not the machine itself - an important distinction. Whenever a machine's location on the network is moved, the IP address must be changed, too. The IP address is the set of numbers many people see on their workstations or terminals, such as 198.142.225.45, which uniquely identifies the device.

IP (or Internet) addresses are assigned only by the Network Information Center (NIC), although if a network is not connected to the Internet, that network can determine its own numbering. For all Internet accesses, though, the IP address must be registered with the NIC.

There are four formats for the IP address, each used depending on the size of the network. The four formats, Class A through Class D, are shown in Figure 9. The class is identified by the first few bit sequences, shown in the figure as 1 bit for Class A and up to 4 bits for Class D. The class can be determined from the first 3 (high-order) bits. In fact, in most cases, the first 2 bits are enough, because there are few Class D networks.

Class A addresses are for large networks that have many machines. The 24 bits for the local address (also frequently called the host address) are needed in these cases. The network address is kept to 7 bits, which limits the number of networks that can be identified.

Class B addresses are for intermediate sized networks, with 16-bit local or host addresses and 14-bit network addresses. Class C network have only 8 bits for the local or host address, limiting the number of devices to 256. There are 21 bits for the network address.

Finally, Class D networks are used for multicasting purposes, when a general broadcast to more than one device is required. The lengths of each section of the IP address have been carefully chosen to provide maximum flexibility in assigning both network and local addresses.

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Figure 9


IP addresses are four sets of 8 bits, for a total 32 bits. You often represent these bits as separated by a period for convenience, so the IP address format can be thought of as network.local.local.local for Class A through to network.network.network.local for Class C. The IP addresses are usuallywritten out in their decimal equivalents, instead of the long binary strings. This is the familiar host address number network users are used to seeing, such as 198.142.2.223, which would indicate that the network address is 198.142 and the local or host address is 2.223. Of course, the actual address is a set of 1s and 0s. The decimal notation used for IP addresses is properly called dotted quad notation - a bit of trivia for your next dinner party.

The IP addresses can be translated to common names and letters. This can pose a problem, though, because there must be some method of unambiguously relating the physical address, the network address, and a language-based name (such a tpci_ws_4 or bobs_machine).

From the IP address, a network can determine if the data is to be sent out through a gateway. Obviously, if the network address is the same as the current address (routing to a local network device, called a direct host), the gateway is avoided; but all other network addresses are routed to a gateway to leave the local network (indirect host). The gateway receiving data to be transmitted to another network must then determine the routing from the data's IP address and an internal table that provides routing information.

As mentioned, if an address were set to all 1s, the address applies to all addresses on the network. The same rule applies to IP addresses, so that an IP address of 32 1s is considered a broadcast message to all networks and all devices. It is possible to broadcast to all machines in a network by altering the local or host address to all 1s, so that the address 147.10.255.255 for a Class B network (identified as network 147.10) would be received by all devices on that network (255. 255 being the local addresses composed of all 1s); but the data would not leave the network.

Warning.gif - 0.2 K There are two contradictory ways to indicate broadcasts. The later versions of TCP/IP use 1s, but earlier BSD systems use 0s. This causes a lot of confusion. All the devices on a network must know which broadcast convention is used, otherwise datagrams can be stuck on the network forever!

A slight twist is coding the network address as all 0s, which means the originating network, or the local address is being set to 0s - which refers to the originating device only (usually used only when a device is trying to determine its IP address). The all-zero network address format is used when the network IP address is not known, but other devices on the network still can interpret the local address. If this were to be transmitted to another network, it can obviously cause confusion! By convention, no local device is given a physical address of 0.

It is possible for a device to have more than one IP address if it is connected to more than one network, as is the case with gateways. These devices are called multihomed, because they have a unique address for each network they are connected to. In practice, it is best to have a dedicated machine for a multihomed gateway; otherwise the applications on that machine can get confused about which address they should use when building datagrams!

Two networks can have the same network address if they are connected by a gateway. This can cause problems for addressing, because the gateway must be able to differentiate which network the physical address is on.

Address Resolution Protocol

Determining addresses can be difficult because every machine on the network may not have a list of all the addresses of the other machines or devices. Sending data from one machine to another if the recipient's machine physical address is not known can cause a problem if there is no resolution system for determining the addresses. Having to constantly update a table of addresses on each machine would be a network administration nightmare. The problem is not restricted to machine addresses within a small network, because if the remote destination network addresses are unknown, routing and delivery problems will also occur.

The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) helps solve these problems. ARP's job is to convert IP addresses to physical addresses (network and local) and in doing so, eliminates the need for applications to know about the physical addresses. Essentially, ARP is a table with a list of the IP addresses and their corresponding physical addresses. The table is called an ARP cache. The layout of an ARP cache is shown in Figure 10. Each row corresponds to one device, with information for each device:

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Figure 10


Mapping Type

The mapping type is one of four possible values indicating the status of the entry in the ARP cache. A value of 2 means the entry is invalid, a value of 3 means the mapping is dynamic (the entry may change), a value of 4 means static (the entry doesn't change), and finally, a value of 1 means none of the above.

When the ARP receives a recipient device's IP address, it searches the ARP cache for a match. If it finds one, it returns the physical address. If the ARP cache doesn't find a match for an IP address, it sends a message out on the network. The message, called an ARP request is a broadcast that is received by all devices on the local network. (You may remember a broadcast has all 1s in the address.) The ARP request contains the IP address of the intended recipient device. If a device recognises the IP address as belonging to it, the device sends a reply message containing its physical address back to the machine that generated the ARP request, which places the information into its ARP cache for future use. In this manner, the ARP cache can determine the physical address for any machine based on its IP address.

Whenever an ARP request is received by an ARP cache, it uses the information in the request to update its own table. Thus, the system can accommodate changing physical addresses and new additions to the network dynamically without having to generate an ARP request of its own. Without the use of an ARP cache, all theARP requests and replies would generate a lot of network traffic, which can have a serious impact on network performance. There are some simpler network schemes that abandon the cache and simply use broadcast messages each time. This is feasible only when the number of devices is low enough to avoid network traffic problems.

The layout of the ARP request is shown in Figure 11. When an ARP request is sent, all fields in the layout are used except the Recipient Hardware Address (which the request is trying to identify). In an ARP reply, all the fields are used.

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Figure 11


This layout, which will be combined with the network system's protocols into a protocol data unit (PDU), has several fields. The following sections describes these fields. Hardware Type

The hardware type identifies the type of hardware interface. Legal values are as follows.

Type Description
1 Ethernet
2 Experimental Ethernet
3 X.25
4 Proteon ProNET (Token Ring)
5 Chaos
6 IEEE 802.X
7 ARCnet


Protocol Type

The protocol type identifies the type of protocol the sending device is using. With TCP/IP, these protocols are usually an EtherType, for which the legal values are as follows.

Decimal Description
512 XEROX PUP
513 PUP Address Translation
1536 XEROX NS IDP
2048 Internet Protocol (IP)
2049 X.75
2050 NBS
2051 ECMA
2052 Chaosnet
2053 X.25 Level 3
2054 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
2055 XNS
4096 Berkeley Trailer
21000 BBN Simnet
24577 DEC MOP Dump/Load
24578 DEC MOP Remote Console
24579 DEC DECnet Phase IV
24580 DEC LAT
24582 DEC
24583 DEC
32773 HP Probe
32784 Excelan
32821 Reverse ARP
32824 DEC LANBridge
32823 AppleTalk


If the protocol is not EtherType, other values are allowed.

Hardware Address Length

The length of each hardware address in the datagram, given in bytes.

Protocol Address Length

The length of the protocol address in the datagram, given in bytes

Operation Code (Opcode)

The Opcode indicates whether the datagram is an ARP request or an ARP reply. If it is a request, the value is set to 1. If the datagram is a reply, the value is set to 2.

Sender Hardware Address

This is the hardware address of the sending device.

Sender IP Address

This is the IP address of the sending device.

Recipient Hardware Address

This is the hardware address of the recipient device.

Recipient IPs Address

This is the IP address of the recipient device.

Two (or more) networks connected by a gateway can have the same network address. The gateway has to determine to which network the physical address or IP address corresponds. The gateway can do this with a modified ARP called the Proxy ARP (sometimes called Promiscuous ARP). A proxy ARP creates an ARP cache consisting of entries from both networks, with the gateway able to transfer datagrams from one network to the other. The gateway has to manage the ARP requests and replies that cross the two networks.

An obvious flaw with the ARP system is that if a device didn't know its own IP address, there would be no way to generate requests and replies. This can happen when a new device (typically a diskless workstation) is added to the network. The only address the device is aware of is the physical address set either by switches on the network interface or by software. A simple solution is the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP), which works the reverse of ARP, sending out the physical address and expecting back an IP address. The reply containing the IP address is sent by an RARP server, a machine that can supply the information. Although the originating device sends the message as a broadcast, RARP rules stipulate that only the RARP server can generate a reply. (Many networks assign more than one RARP server, both to spread the processing load and to act as a backup in case of problems.)

The Domain Name System

Instead of using the full 32-bit IP address, many systems adopt more meaningful names for their devices and networks. Network names usually reflect the organisation's name (such as tpci.com and bobs_cement). Individual device names within a networkcan range from descriptive names on small networks (such as tims_machine and laser_1) to more complex naming conventions on larger networks (such as hpws_23 and tpci704). Translating between these names and the IP addresses would be practically impossible on an Internet-wide scale.

To solve the problem of network names, the Network Information Center maintains a list of network names and the corresponding network gateway addresses. This system grew from a simple flatfile list (which was searched for matches) to a more complicated system called the Domain Name System (DNS) when the networks became too numerous for the flatfile system to function efficiently.

The Domain Name System uses a hierarchical architecture, much like the UNIX filesystem. The first level of naming divides networks into the category of subnetworks, such as com for commercial, mil for military, edu for educational, and so on. Below each of these is another division that identifies the individual subnetwork, usually one for each organisation. This is called the domain name and is unique. The organisation's system manager can further divide the company's subnetworks as desired, with each network called a subdomain. For example, the system merlin.abc_corp.com has the domain name abc_corp.com, whereas the network merlin.abc_corp is a subdomain of merlin.abc_corp.com. A network can be identified with an absolute name (such as merlin.abc_corp.com) or a relative name (such as merlin) that uses part of the complete domain name.

There are seven first-level domain names established by the NIC so far. These are



The NIC also allows for a country designator to be appended. There are designators for all countries in the world, such as .ca for Canada, .uk for the United Kingdom and .au for Australia.The Domain Name System uses two systems to establish and track domain names. A name resolver on each network examines information in a domain name. If it can't find the full IP address, it queries a name server, which has the full NIC information available. The name resolver tries to complete the addressing information using its own database, which it updates in much the same manner as the ARP system when it must query a name server. If a queried name server cannot resolve the address, it can query another name server, and so on, across the entire internetwork.

There is a considerable amount of information stored in the name resolver and name server, as well as a whole set of protocols for querying between the two. The details, luckily, are not important to an understanding of TCP/IP, although the overall concept of the address resolution is important when understanding how the Internet translates between domain names and IP addresses.

note01.gif
As well, there is an enormous amount of literature available on this topic. In particular the following books are worthwhile which can be bought from McGills here in Melbourne.

A good reference web site is as follows:- http://www.lantronix.com/htmfiles/mrktg/catalog/et.htm

TCP/IP illustrated Volumes 1, 2 & 3, by W. Richard Stevens (Addison-Wesley),
ISBN 0-201-63346-9


TCP/IP Network Administration, by Craig Hunt (O'Reilly & Associates),
ISBN 0-937175-82-X


Teach Yourself TCP/IP, by Timothy Parker, Ph.D. (SAMS Publishing),
ISBN 0-672-30549-6


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Last revised: Friday, 04 July 1997